In paper chromatography, filter paper and an extraction solvent are the stationary and mobile phases. The stationary phase is stationary, while the mobile phase is a slowly moving solution that carries the components of a mixture to a distant location where they can be easily visualized. Because the mobile phase is so liquid, it is easy for fingers and other organic materials to contaminate the chromatography paper and give inaccurate results.
Using a coffee filter as a stationary phase
Using a coffee filter as a chromatography stationary phase is a great experiment to try with children. It will give them the opportunity to learn about the chemistry behind capillary action, which is the ability of liquids to flow through other materials. Basically, when water passes through a coffee filter, the ink and water move up the filter until it is completely saturated. The ink then spreads out to color the coffee filter. However, when we use an ink, the ink is a mixture of various colored molecules, which are separated by paper chromatography.
Paper chromatography uses a filter paper as a stationary phase, and it can be used in a variety of ways. One of the most common is Alpha cellulose Filterpaper, which holds the stationary phase. This paper is made of cellulose fiber and is capable of meeting the water molecules in the solvent. Paper coffee filters are also a cheap and convenient alternative to chromatography paper.
Using ethanol as a solvent
You can avoid spilling the ethanol by using a small amount of hexane or water as a solvent. These solvents are similar in solubility, which means they can dissolve one another. The difference between ethanol and water is that hexane is slightly more polar than water. In this way, ethanol will not touch the sides of the paper.
Prepare a beaker with silica gel and a funnel. Pour 18 mL of 95% ethanol into the beaker. Stir the mixture with a glass rod until it forms a slurry that flows easily and is the consistency of batter. Do not overstir the slurry or it may clog the funnel and trap air in the column. When the paper is ready, remove it from the beaker and label it with the solvent.
Using a pen instead of a pencil to draw a start line
In paper chromatography, the start line is marked with a pencil. Ink from pens can dissolve in the solvent, contaminating the chromatogram. The lead of a pencil, however, is made of insoluble graphite. So, drawing the start line with a pencil would be the correct procedure. But a few researchers are unsure about this practice.
To avoid a problem, use a pen to draw a start line on chromatograhy paper. A pencil does not have a lead, which can float in the solvent. Ink is not the best choice because the lead can easily dissolve in the solvent. Furthermore, it will ruin the chromatography paper. A ballpoint pen, on the other hand, will spread the ink all over it.
Using a pencil to draw a start line
There are many reasons not to use ink for drawing a baseline on chromatography paper. Pencil ink is dye and can dissolve in solvent, contaminating your chromatogram. By contrast, pencil lead is usually made of insoluble graphite, making it a suitable choice for drawing the baseline on paper chromatography. Nevertheless, using ink for this purpose is not recommended.
When making a chromatogram, it is important to draw a line above the initial level of the solvent in the column. This initial level may not be correct, and can affect the results of your analysis. Often, you will find the baseline level above the start line, which will hinder your chromatography results. In this case, you can use hydrochloric acid instead.
Using a pencil to estimate the center of a non-circular spot
The first step in estimating the center of a non-circular chromatography spot is to estimate the distance between the spot and the origin of the marker dots. This distance is equal to the distance between the origin of the spot and the front of the solvent. After this measurement, the spot is the center of the non-circular spot. To estimate the center of a non-circular spot on chromatography paper, the best way is to estimate the distance from the origin of the dots to the front of the solvent.
Once you have estimated the distance between the spot and the solvent front, you can start measuring the distance between the two components. Then, use the two distances to calculate the Rf value. For each spot, measure the distance between the front and center of each spot, using the formula in Figure 5. You can then use the Rf value to identify the components.
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